Season 4: Episode 1: Coronavirus and our Schools – Your Top Legal Questions (Student Edition)


As the COVID-19 pandemic shuts schools across the country, many districts are looking for guidance in uncertain times. What obligations do schools have to students and families when buildings are closed?  How can special education needs be addressed when children are logging on from home? Does the FERPA health emergency exception apply to disclosing confidential information if a student tests positive for the virus?

Join Christina PeerLisa Woloszynek and Miriam Pearlmutter for a remotely-recorded episode exploring these and other timely district questions. We will discuss general concerns for schools that remain open, as well as issues arising with districts that have closed their buildings.

View Podcast Transcript

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Lisa: Welcome back to Class Act: Updates in Education Law. I’m Lisa.

Miriam: I’m Miriam.

Lisa: We’re attorneys at Walter | Haverfield in Cleveland, Ohio. We practice school law and every two weeks, we get together and talk about the most recent legal development in education relevant to school board, administrators, teachers, really anyone who works in education.

Miriam: Today, we are taking a look at how coronavirus occurrences are affecting school districts in Ohio and around the country. We are recording remotely today. Each of us is in a separate location and we’re joined by phone. We are also joined by Christina Peer who is an attorney at Walter | Haverfield. She recently advised a school district on their obligations related to students. That’s what we’ll be talking about today. How school districts’ obligations to students are changing in light of this.

Christina: Thank you so much, Miriam. It’s good to be here with you even remotely by phone. We’ll do our best to bring this all together and get some information out there that I think people are going to find helpful given the current situation.

Miriam: I’m sure you’ve been inundated with COVID-19 questions and we much appreciate your joining us today.

Lisa: Thank you for joining us, Christina. Before we get started, I do want to emphasize that this topic, even more than our usual topics that we always say are heavily evolving, this is rapidly developing almost daily, if not hourly. It is important to be in touch with your state and local boards of health, of course, as well as district council and your boards of education. We will be talking about general questions that we’ve been fielding and some ways to approach these issues but if you have specific immediate concerns about status, where we’re going to be turned to your district attorneys who are going to know the details of your particular circumstances and what is going on in your particular state.

Most of our conversations here are going to relate to the current development in Ohio and Ohio counties which have now begun a minimum of at least three-week closures that was ordered by Ohio’s governor, Mike DeWine. Your state and local government may have additional regulations or requirements that you should consult. Let’s get back into a little bit of the background, Miriam.

Miriam: Of course. Just a little background about coronavirus. I’m sure most of our audience knows this already that the COVID-19, as it is officially termed, began with an outbreak in Wuhan, China but it’s quickly spread to more than 100 countries around the world including, of course, the United States. This virus is particularly concerning because it’s new and it also has a higher mortality rate than other viruses previously had had, especially, with older populations and those with compromised immune system.

Recently, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic related to the COVID-19 virus and we have had a national emergency declared so as to allow funding to be freed up and to allow for greater flexibility in decision-making. In general, the idea right now is to slow the spread of infection. That’s considered a high priority and the goal of that is to ensure the healthcare facilities will be able to keep up so that those people who need medical resources like respirators or hospital beds will have access to them.

Of course, school districts, I know, Lisa, you mentioned that we just had a closure of school districts in Ohio for three weeks. That’s part of slowing this epidemic. Lisa, can you talk a little bit more about what school districts are doing?

Lisa: Yes. The closure may be somewhat of a misstatement as we’re talking about a typical building by district across the state and country, certainly, are still looking at how to still educate children but as part of this, I’ve heard some districts have been canceling extracurricular activities, athletic events, certainly not bringing together large crowds of people. Many schools including universities as well as our K-12 districts are switching to digital instruction and have otherwise, canceled in-person classes.

We also have districts making decisions about other events consulting with the local boards of health but also nationally, there seems to be a trend to be closing a school district for at least three weeks which is what we just began in the state of Ohio. Again, that’s being referenced as at least three weeks. We’re not sure how that’s going to develop past that time frame and are looking at what education will look like for our students in a district moving forward. Certainly, we’ve seen a good majority of states at this point over the last week move towards closing schools, at least for the time being. Miriam, do you want to try and start with some other key questions we’ve been fielding lately?

Miriam: Yes, sure. I’m sure, Christina, you’ve had a ton of questions relating to students and parents even before the schools were closed.

Christina: Absolutely. That’s right. I think it’s important to know, for some of your listeners, they are in areas where schools remain open here in Ohio as, I believe, Lisa said earlier, schools are closed at least for the next three weeks and there’s no clarity yet in terms of when schools are going to reopen. Either that your school happens to be closed right now, I think some of this guidance and some of the questions that we’re getting from districts when schools are open is important.

Questions that we think getting more things along the lines of what do we do if we have a student who may have been exposed to the virus who hasn’t tested positive but maybe somebody in their household was exposed, it wasn’t the student directly but it was somebody else in the household, things of that nature. What do you do in situations where maybe the Health Department is saying to a student or a family that they need to be self-quarantining and the family is saying, “No, I still want my student to attend school?” We had a couple of situations like that.

Lots of different variables because typically, we would leave to parents the decision of whether or not they send their child to school and all school districts provide guidelines but we haven’t really been in a situation before where districts are seeking to really enforce those kind of guidelines and when students can be there and when they can’t be there. This is a different perspective, I guess, that we’re looking at because this virus does spread so rapidly and it’s so contagious.

Miriam: For a part of the country where there still are schools open and certainly when schools go to reopen, they don’t know exactly what that might look like but, in general, can you just touch on what districts can do to limit some of the exposure and how they can limit children from attendance when necessary during this time?

Christina: Sure. Our general guidance so far has been that people need to really look to what their public health department is saying to them. Whether that’s your county or your city or the state that you’re in, what are those folks telling you about which student should be in school, who should not be in school to limit the public health risk? There’s no constitutional right or federal or state right for a student to attend school while they are exposing other students and teachers to the risk of infection during a pandemic like this.

You are safe with some competing interest. I would, again, prioritize the guidance that you’re getting from health officials as opposed to maybe we’re going to make parents upset or things to that effect. Some districts have policies that they might be able to rely on.

I would say you check your districts for policies in terms of students attending school but, again, I would rely more on what your local health department is saying because I would rather see districts err on the side of caution and keep a student home because we can always provide a student with contemporary education or make up for that hype somehow as opposed to having a student come in and risk exposing a large group of people to this very contagious virus.

Lisa: Also in terms of guidance, I just like to point out, follow, obviously, state guidance that they start developing, health departments are developing, the state Department of Education but the US Department of Education has been recently releasing guidance on its website, even just yesterday. We also have available resources from the CDC.

Make sure you’re checking those resources for available information that is out there.

Christina: I want to point out resources on our website. We have a page on the website to COVID-19. You can find that at walterhav.com. Right on the first page, you’ll see a link to COVID-19 updates from our law firm.

Lisa: Also, as we talk through the virus today, we’re really going to focus on the impact on the school closures and staff, what we’re faced with in Ohio and many states are getting on to that order as well. Certainly, use those resources that are not yet closed but we’ll dive into some of the questions we’re now getting less disclosures and the issues that closures do create. Miriam, do you want to start us up with some of those questions?

Miriam: Yes, absolutely. Of course, once the district or state decides to close the school, it’s just a new whole set of issues. I’m sure, Christina, that since Ohio closed its schools, that’s pretty much the kinds of questions that we’ve been getting. Just about online learning and special education students. Is that your experience that most of your questions may focus on that?

Christina: That’s exactly right. We’ve been getting a lot of questions about how to potentially keep learning moving forward. We’ve been getting questions about how to make opportunities accessible to students recognizing that in some districts, everyone has access to computers and Wi-Fi and other districts, that’s not going to be nearly as feasible just based on the student population. We have some rural districts, we have some more urban districts where the same resources are not available for all students. Districts are really struggling right now to figure out how are we going to continue learning opportunities while still keeping people safe and keeping our school buildings closed.

Miriam: Lisa, did you want to talk a little bit about the meaning of the closure that’s going on in Ohio because I know there’s been some confusion about that.

Lisa: Yes, absolutely. When the governor first referenced this closure, it was referred to as an extended spring break which I think some districts and many students took as this is really closed free time. But it has since been clarified that really the intent is for districts to continue to educate students in creative ways if at all possible which is obviously going to look different district to district. I did want to emphasize that we’re not looking at just a pure shutdown of schools that we’re not educating our children anymore.

We have a lot of administrators and teachers working very hard and diligently to come up with good creative ways to continue to educate our students, especially should these closures extend beyond the three weeks that we’ve started with, which I do expect, if that happens, we will start to see some more specific orders, hopefully from the state regarding what that content needs to look like because right now we’re seeing some division between do we just give worksheets to send home or do we do online learning, are we teaching new instruction? Are we just reiterating already learned skills? There’s a lot of different ends of that whole spectrum going on right now.

Hopefully, we’ll start to see some more continuity should this closure expand further this school year.

Christina: Lisa, if I could interrupt with one more quick thing, maybe a piece of advice for Ohio school districts. I’ve had a lot of districts who at the very beginning, as you said, we’re kind of looking at this as an extended spring break, as the governor said, and maybe we’re not going to provide a whole lot of learning during that time, I think as this situation evolves and it becomes more and more likely that schools are going to be closed for an extended period of time, a lot of districts that I’m talking to are utilizing these three weeks to really come up with good plans for online learning opportunities and how they’re going to be rolling out instruction to students.

If your district is one that’s in a situation where you’re waiting to see what’s going to happen next, my best advice would be take advantage of the time that you have now to try to put things in place so that if we do have a more extended closure, you’re ready to address that situation.

Lisa: Yes and that’s the exact impression I’m getting is that really, that start with three weeks is somewhat intended for that purpose for everybody have a little bit of time to iron out what does this look like moving forward, but we know that certainly, this pandemic is not going to be over in the next three weeks. I certainly expect longer closures and really districts coming together to figure out what we’re going to do with that over the next couple weeks.

Miriam: Christina, one group of students that is really raising set of a number of questions is our special education population. I’m sure that when a district is thinking about providing online services, one of the first questions that comes up is what to do about the students with special education needs. How have you been advising or directing school districts?

Christina: I’m happy to talk about that with the caveat that there’s still a lot that we don’t know given how the situation is unfolding and continuing to unfold. I think the first thing that’s important for districts to understand is that if you are providing continuing opportunities for learning to non-disabled students, then you have to provide continued opportunities for learning to disabled students that are commensurate with those same opportunities. For example, if you’re providing new instruction to non-disabled students, then you would need to be providing new instruction and new content to students with disabilities.

That’s the first thing just as an initial matter, from a pure – we can’t discriminate perspective. We have to make sure that everyone has learning opportunities even through this particular crisis with the understanding that the learning opportunities for all students are going to look different if districts have had to suddenly shift from a brick and mortar platform to an online platform or sending worksheets home, that sort of thing.

In Ohio, we have something called blizzard bags. I realize not every state has that because most of you don’t have blizzards or a lot of you don’t have blizzards but in Ohio, we have blizzard bags and they’re just packets of work if you will, that teachers can send home so that when we have an extended closure due to a snowstorm, students can have learning opportunities. Districts are really looking at how do I do this. Again, the important thing is to make sure that you’re doing the same thing, same kinds of opportunities for your disabled students as your non-disabled students.

I am getting a lot of questions and they’re great questions to which we have no good answers about. Things like well, “What does specially designed instruction look like for my students with disabilities?” because sometimes it’s harder for those students to access information that’s coming from an online platform, particularly our students who have the most significant disabilities. I think students with cognitive disabilities, students with multiple disabilities, students who have autism, all of those students.

The advice that I’ve been giving, frankly, is do the best you can. Intervention specialists needs to be really thinking about how can I deliver instructions. Can I do it online? Can I do small groups of people? Can I use Google Classroom, Google Hangout? Can I do a Zoom meeting? How can I set things up? Maybe I’m even taking a small group of students like if I would be working with a group of two or three students in the classroom on a particular skill, can I set up an online opportunity to scheduled time for those two or three students in order to access that and provide that type of specially designed instruction along with maybe sending materials home to parents?

Something to go along with that is that the materials the intervention specialists are sending home to parents need to be aligned with the student’s IEP goals. These are going to be individualized in the same way that they would be if students were actually being served in the classroom. Again, for our students with disabilities, they might be getting two sets of work coming home, they might be getting things that are related specifically to their IEP goals, as well as more general education content for those students who are included in general education classroom for all or much of their day.

Miriam: Sure. That sounds like excellent advice. Excellent things to keep in mind. One thing that does come up, of course, is that compensatory services.

Christina: We’ve been getting a lot of questions about that. In all honesty at this point, it’s too soon to tell in a lot of ways. There is guidance that has been published by the US Department of Education, indicating that for students with disabilities after this whole crisis is over, IEP teams would need to meet to determine if the student is entitled to compensatory services or not based on what was able to be provided during the break, and probably other factors as well. Although no guidance has been given yet about what factors you might consider to determine whether compensatory services are necessary.

To that end, what I’m advising districts to do as they are providing services to students with disabilities, make sure that your service providers are documenting what was done. What services were provided? Did you get together in an online format? Did you send work home for students to complete? What were you able to do? How did you provide that instruction? We’ll have a basis going forward if we are in a situation where we’re making compensatory education decisions. One of the areas in that vein that has been most problematic where I’ve been getting the most questions is with related services.

Think about speech-language services, occupational therapy, physical therapy, those kinds of services are going to be some of the hardest to provide because so much of what those related service providers do is something that they’re working perhaps like OT or PT hand over hand with the students, or you might need specialized equipment. I know some of those providers are thinking about how can I adapt? How can I modify things? How can I send things home that parents can do? How can I put together some training modules for parents that they might be able to watch so they could see how to do a particular stretch or a particular exercise, things like that.

People are coming up with lots of creative ways to get this done. It’s just a very challenging situation, again, particularly for those students who have the most significant disabilities and those students who receive a lot of related service minutes.

Miriam: As you’ve said, this is ever-evolving and we’ve received some guidance out there from the US Department of Education. Hopefully, we’ll get more detailed guidance as things develop from, for example, Ohio Department of Education and certain specific states that give them more parameters for all that. Really thinking outside of the box of how we can creatively provide these services is going to be super important right now.

Christina: That’s exactly right. One of the things that I have been advising districts to not do, and frankly, I don’t know if this is what the Ohio Department of Education, the US Department of Education expects because we haven’t received guidance yet but I have not been advising district to change IEPs around to reflect a different, least restrictive environment or to reflect something different than what we would be doing if we were in a brick and mortar classroom. I recognize that we might not be providing all services or able to meet all goals on the student’s IEP but that doesn’t mean that those goals or those services are not needed. It just means that in this current situation, we’re not able to do all of those things. I wouldn’t want to see districts get together and teams get together and make changes to all of these IEPs only to have to go and change them back when district operations returned to normal. Again, we haven’t gotten guidance on that, but that’s the best advice that I have been giving people at the moment. I don’t know, Lisa, if you have some advice that you want to share with districts with respect to holding IEP meetings, because obviously, we’re practicing social distancing, and not getting large groups of people together and all of that.

Lisa: Yes, and that hasn’t been a big question, we’ve been getting repeatedly is with our schools closed because anyway, they don’t have to hold meetings, and do timelines and those things. Really, the short answer is you are still responsible for these things. Again, teams are going to have to think creatively, think remote, meetings by phone, by Skype, by Zoom. We’ll try to keep you updated as we find out, but timelines, in essence, are still in effect.

We do expect some flexibility and understanding from the Department of Education, but at the same time, right now school districts really need to attempt to comply as much as possible and be very diligent in their documentation of what your attempts are, requirements, like consent for evaluations are still necessary. We’ll look at, probably looking at some of the holes in that when schools come back together, but we really need to be considering the individual students and what different things mean for them.

Figuring out whether or not a full evaluation for re-evaluation, is that still necessary? Can we record a review in some areas? Do we have enough data to do that? Or do we still need to bring a kid in the school just protecting or schedule a time for say a bike or a related service provider to meet the child and finish some testing, or are we done testing and we can hold an evaluation meeting because we have everything we just need to finish the report and go over results? Can we hold that by phone? Can we review the IEP and do an annual IEP meeting because we do have the data to do that?

Also, certainly weighing the health risks in these situations as well. Obviously, for a child who has severe medical issues, or even asthma, that’s not going to be a child you’re going to want to bring in even for one on one testing if possible. You’re going to want to consider that whole situation, and certainly, your prior written notice as we say this over and over again, but those really are going to be your best friend right now. Making sure that the decisions that you’re making do get documented.

There was just some OCR guidance we mentioned earlier that just came out about civil rights. That does really align with some of what we’ve been talking about. These children are still to be safe, and their timeline should still be in place, but we do get some flexibility that you can read in that guidance to some degree, as far as if things like observations are not going to be possible or face to face testing is not possible. Really, the big message is to do what you can, but again, those prior written notices are going to be where you’re going to want to be diligent about documenting what you’ve attempted, what the circumstances are, why certain things can’t get done, and may ultimately end up delaying some, at least, evaluation pieces for a little while. How about any other non-special education type of issues that you’ve been hearing, Miriam?

Miriam: Well, one thing that we’ve been talking about a little bit is meals. Many students, depending on their socio-economic situations, rely heavily on school lunches and breakfasts for their daily nutrition, although it’s not obligatory, although it’s not mandatory, many school districts aren’t offering meals during this time. The Department of Education, of course, encourages districts to try and make sure the needs of students from lower socioeconomic families are met. We’ve heard about some really creative solutions that districts have developed to try and provide this nutrition to children, but also in a non-public setting, everybody’s not getting together for lunch, obviously, to keep families and children safe. Some school districts, for example, Lisa has been having lunches available in a pickup line, you drive through and you grab your lunch or your breakfast or both and you go.

Another thing that I’ve heard that I thought was really nice is that some school districts are offering this regardless of a child’s eligibility for free lunches, and I thought that was a good idea, a good way to go during this time of the American crisis.

Lisa: One of the positives we’ve been hearing is how communities are trying to come together and are trying to provide for each other and be creative, and I think this is a great example of that.

Miriam: Yes, absolutely. Another question, Lisa, that I’m sure you’ve heard about is testing. Now, this is the springtime, and springtime is typically when many states do their annual state testing, which is pretty important. What kind of questions and guidance have you been providing?

Lisa: Yes, this is definitely a hot issue. State testing for kids every year is a passionate issue for a lot of people, and this certainly is coming up with the timing of at least a three-week closures, and then obviously affects them further throughout the spring, but the Department of Education, the US Department of Education did issue a recent fact sheet that they will consider some waivers for states regarding assessment requirements, whereas typically, waivers are not given for any of these areas. We do know that is potentially coming, looking at things that are just not going to be feasible because of closures and because of trying to prevent the spread of this virus.

This unusual step could make open waivers for states to waive whether or not mandatory testing percentages needs to take place and things such as the testing windows. We know there’s going to be some flexibility in that, we don’t quite know yet what each state is going to see with those waivers, and obviously, if we see extended closures, if we will even end up seeing the testing completed this year, or it will just be an extended test window. Some of that’s still up in the air, but at least the guidance from the Department of Education has given at least some sense of relaxation in that there is going to be a little flexibility here, and they are going to be looking at what waivers they can provide to provide some relief to the states for this assessment component.

I think it brings relief, a little relief in time of chaos for educators planning what they need to focus on. Hopefully, we can relax some of that notion during the stressful time, but also, before we go on, I did want to point out that there are some of these guidelines we’ve been talking about out there. Again, Federal Department of Education, many state departments, we’re hoping that we’ll continue to see more and more guidance coming out from at least our Ohio Department of Education as this develops.

We’ll keep looking back to all of these websites for the common questions and answers so that you can be current with what’s going on in your state because again, just the answers we have today aren’t necessarily going to be the answers that are in place come tomorrow.

The other piece that we’ve been getting questions about too, is confidentiality with all the circumstances. Miriam, do you want to dive into some of those questions you’ve been hearing?

Miriam: We have been getting some confidentiality questions, both in terms of letting staff or families know when a student has been exposed or has fallen ill with the virus, and also questions about confidentiality in online learning environments. Of course, the audience knows that a federal privacy law prohibits districts from disclosing educational records, and also personally identifiable information in those records without parental consent.

There is, of course, a health and safety emergency exception, which does allow that kind of disclosure to appropriate parties, and I think that’s the important thing to keep in mind. If the district looks at the totality of the circumstances and determines that there’s an articulable and significant threat, then the district may disclose information to any person whose knowledge is necessary to protect health and safety. The key here is that you’re only going to be disclosing health information to people for whom this is truly necessary, and that might include the Board of Health, for example, but it’s not going to include everybody. It’s not going to include the families or the students. Of course, there are rare situations and the Department of Education actually recently put out guidance, proper guidance, specifically about FERPA questions that the DOE has been getting.

One example that they gave is in rare situations, you may need to release a child names to other families, for example, if there was a student on the wrestling team and the student tested positive in, then the district may need to disclose that child’s identity to other wrestling team participants, but this is very unusual. I would urge everybody who’s facing that situation to really consult with counsel about that.

In general, disclosure is only to people for whom it’s absolutely necessary to have that information for the emergency. That’s what we’ve been advising districts. I think those are the more common FERPA questions that we’ve been getting now, Christina, are related to online learning and Google Classroom issues. I don’t know if you’ve been getting some of those questions as well.

Christina: Lots of questions about that. I really appreciate the fact that districts want to be so cognizant of the privacy rights of their students and they want to make sure that as we’re switching to this different modality of learning, that most districts have not been using that they are again, very cognizant of student’s confidentiality rights and that what we’ve been advising districts who have called in with concerns about that, is that if you have students who are participating like in a Google Hangout or Google Classroom or whether they’re using a Zoom meeting or Skype or FaceTime or any of the technologies that are available to us, for those students that’s no different than them sitting in their classroom every day where they’re going to be surrounded by other students, so there’s no FERPA issues there per se.

One of the questions that we think getting though as well, if we’re in the classroom, then we know who’s in there. We don’t necessarily know if a student is learning at home, there’s probably a parent somewhere in the house or sitting with them perhaps, maybe even helping them at the computer if it’s a younger student, so now that parent has access to see who else might be in that classroom.

I don’t believe that that creates a huge FERPA issue because most school districts allow parents to come in and they allow parent observation. Some classrooms have parent volunteers. However, district should make sure that they tell their staff members to be cognizant of the fact that when you’re working online, if you have more than one student there and you might have parents who are also listening, it’s the same way that you would interact with your students to protect the confidentiality of information if you were teaching in a brick and mortar building. For example, you wouldn’t say, “Oh Lisa, you’re going to get extended time because that’s the accommodation on your IEP.” You’re not going to say that in front of the entire class. Likewise, you would not say that in front of everyone who’s participating in the Google Classroom or on the Skype call. Whatever it is, it’s probably something then that you would address privately with that student or that family later on if that was necessary.

I think as long as teachers continue to apply the same common sense approach that they utilize in their classrooms, the online environment is not going to create any tremendous FERPA confidentiality concern.

Really quickly, something else that came out in the OCR guidance, and I don’t think that it was actually as much in a guidance document as it was in a webinar that OCR also put out that something for districts to be aware of as we’re talking about all of these online learning opportunities. They wanted districts to be very aware of the needs of your students who might have visual impairments or any other a disability that might make online learning less accessible to them than it would for other students or even other students with disabilities. Just another wrinkle that I think districts need to consider and something that OCR is watching to make sure that the opportunities that are being set up are accessible to all students.

If you do have students with disabilities who are not going to be able to access that learning based on their disability, letting school districts know that they’re probably going to have to come up with other options for those particular students.

Lisa: That’s a great point because OCR definitely has had a recent focus on that. In the webinar that I watched from OCR, they actually pointed out that they have, I believe they called it a task force dealing with this issue. It went so far as to tell you how to file a complaint. From their perspective, they’re taking it very seriously.

Miriam: I know that we did get some recent guidance from the U.S department of education’s office for civil rights. I wasn’t sure if there was anything else in that guidance that you wanted to point out before we sign off for today.

Christina: Yes. Recently the office of civil rights issued some important guidance and they emphasize that school districts need to be aware of the potential for national origin discrimination for harassment, using bullying of students of Asian or other backgrounds at this time, based on this pandemic. Long time listeners of our program know that bullying and harassment based on nationality is something that districts have to seriously and respond to promptly. We’ve had several episodes I think we about district’s obligations when they become aware of teasing and harassment based on protected categories.

I mean in general school districts, you need to make sure that you’re following your policies and procedures and responding to bullying complaints both in terms of documenting the complaint responding to it, remedying effects and preventing any recurrences.

Lisa: Well, thank you so much, Christina, for joining us. Thank you so much. I really appreciate your time.

Christina: Thanks for having me.

Lisa: Everybody in the audience if your school district has come up with some creative ideas or our solutions that you particularly like, definitely email us and let us know. This brings us to the end of our episode. In our next episode, we will talk about fast questions that come up related to COVID-19 and in the meantime, please stay safe, stay healthy, wash your hands, have a good day.

Disclosure: The content of this podcast is provided for general information purposes only. The podcast is not legal advice does not create an attorney-client relationship and should not be relied upon in making legal decisions. Actions on legal matters should be taken only upon advice of legal counsel. Walter | Haverfield does not guarantee the accuracy of information contained in this podcast.